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The Research Activity Includes Published Research Papers, Paper Presentation in Conferences and Seminars, and Book Chapters in Edited Books.


21. Investigations and Trial under Immigration Law: A Critical Analysis on Procedural Law [Edited Book Chapter]

Cite As: Raj, P. (2022) Investigations and Trial under Immigration Law: A Critical Analysis on Procedural Law, ICFAI University Hyderabad. Hyderabad, India: ALT Publications, Hyderabad.

Abstract - Even though the people moved without a passport or visa, they can still be considered Indian citizens because they have lived there for a long time. If a foreigner is found to be living illegally in Indian Territory, they must be treated with respect and dignity until they are sent back to their home country. Due to various reasons including political or economical, inimical reasons, some people from neighboring countries may enter India. May be due to some cultural and ethnic similarities, on many occasions such migrants go unnoticed, and they almost willing and try to settle in our country. These illegal migrants sometimes pose threat to the national security and infringe the rights of Indian Citizens. The Author critically analyses that how a foreign National who is considered to be an illegal immigrant shall be treated till they are deported to their country, or appropriate government taking any decision about their citizenship in general. The Author in this paper examines the procedures to be followed by the concerned authorities and Courts, when an offence said to have been committed by illegal immigrants, under the Foreigners Act, 1946 and offences under any other law of the land for the time being in force is detected.

20. Role of Finance Commission in Shaping Financial Structure of India: A Constitutional Perspective [Indexed in ABDC / American Economic Association (AEA) / Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA)]

Cite As: Raj, P., & Gupta, N. (2022). Role of Finance Commission in Shaping Financial Structure of India: A Constitutional Perspective (Vol. 21, pp. 1).

Abstract - Finances play an important role in federal-provincial relations. In any federal arrangement, the framers of the Constitution have a delicate and difficult task to maintain resource expenditure harmony at all levels of government. In reality, a perfect match between spending and resources is practically impossible to achieve, since expenditures and resources are asymmetric. Inconsistency can be seen in all federal systems, though to varying degrees. The Australian Commonwealth Grants Commission prompted the establishment of the Finance Commission. In India, however, the Finance Commission, which has a wide range of responsibilities, is not a permanent body; it meets only once every five years, and its duties are completed once the report is published. The President of India distributes and distributes the net revenues of taxes to be split between the Centre and the States, provides grants in aid to the States' revenue, and other items related to the Fiscal Federal system, on the recommendation of the Finance Commission. Each chamber of Parliament receives the Finance Commission's recommendations, along with an explanatory memorandum. In light of current financial conditions, the authors of this paper will look at the mismatch between resources and liabilities. The author of this article discusses constitutional provisions concerning Centre-State Financial Relations, with an emphasis on the Union's and States' expenditure responsibilities, resources assigned to the Union and States, and the role of the Finance Commission in Fiscal Federalism. Click Here for Full Paper

19. Mental Health Laws in India: A Critical Analysis [Indexed in SCOPUS / Web of Science - Publon / Thomson Reuters / Elsevier Mendeley / Garuda / Google Scholar / Microsoft Academic]

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Web of Science ID

Cite As: Raj, P., & Patil, J. (2022). Mental Health Laws in India: A Critical Analysis (Vol. 6, pp. 9775–9786).

Also Available:

Abstract - Supportive legislation and policies are needed for human rights and mental health treatment for disadvantaged people. Internationally and regionally, both "hard" and "soft" legislation relating to mental health treatment have been drafted. In the field of mental health care in India, amendments to existing laws and the formation of new laws are frequently necessary and have been seen. So far, mental health care reform has primarily been reactive, but current legislation and policies provide the prospect of proactive change. One of the most serious issues in providing good mental health treatment in India is a shortage of qualified human resources. While postgraduate psychiatric standards prescribe a two-week forensic psychiatry course, this is insufficient to establish the essential competency. As a result, forensic psychiatry requires the development of a specialisation. In addition, forensic psychiatric services must be created, organised, and maintained. In India, one or more centres of expertise in forensic psychiatry are required. Click Here for Full Paper

18. Victimization as a Result of Vulnerability [Book Chapter - National Publication]

Cite As:  Raj, P. (2022). Victimization as a Result of Vulnerability. In N. Vats, S. Kumar, S. Datta, A. Mishra, & R. Vats (Eds.), Criminal Justice Administration and Road Ahead (pp. 34–48). New Delhi: Bharti Publication.

Abstract - The concept of victim has construed various meaning under the criminal justice system of any country. One of the most controversial topics in the wider subject is victimization. It is the victim's fault to prevent the pictim from violating the law, irony, or any form of abuse, often taking full or partial responsibility for the unfortunate event that has occurred in his or her life in the event that the victim did nothing Victimisation includes any interactions that may occur between the perpetrator and the victim at some point in the crime and the subsequent consequences of that interaction or the crime itself. Interpersonal sacrifices associated with developmental sacrifices are a special type of negative experienice that is different from other life events. These sacrifices can be defined as harm caused by an individual through the actions of others in violation of social norms. Criminal activity is a collective phenomenon. Not only is crime a biological effect, but it also has an environmental impact. Various theoretical connotations have been understood with regard to the concept of victimisation and victim's justice. Women, for example, spend more time at home than men because they are more closely watched as children and are more likely to take on family and parental roles as adults. Men on the other hand, are typically socialised, engaged in the public domain. self-assured and militant in social circumstances, less restricted in their everyday lives and spend more time in the sheltered woorld of their homes. Victims are those toho suffer not only from biological factors, but also from gender, age, and circumstances. The paper intends to conceptualise victim and understand the various connotations dealing with victim and their position in the criminal Justice process. Click here for Full Paper


17. Implementation of Menstrual Leave policy in India: An empirical Study  [International Publication - Indexed in SCOPUS]

Scopus Source ID

Cite As: Raj, P., & Pandit, A. (2021). Implementation of Menstrual Leave Policy In India: An Empirical Study. NVEO - Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils Journal, 8(5), 2317–2322. Retrieved from

Abstract - Menstruation is a natural, normal biological process experienced by half of the humanity, yet it is not given its due importance due to unnecessary embarrassment, shame, illiteracy and poverty. Women experience menstrual discomfort and cramps on a regular basis. On the first day of their cycles, more than half of all female employees experience significant cramps and agony. The concept of first-day-of-period leave is crucial to this discussion. The paper contains details about "The Menstruation Benefits Bill, 2017." A law requiring all organisations to provide Menstrual Leave or Period Leave could be a step in the right direction. The goal of the study is to learn about men's and women's attitudes around menstrual leave in the workplace and how they differ. The writers of this research report sought to learn what employees thought about such a leave. More than 340 respondents (women) from institutions in the organised sector in India's Jammu Territory completed a self-structured questionnaire. This study employs an analytical descriptive research design. This article also sheds information on several countries that provide unpaid menstruation leave or have procedures in place to compensate for it. The information associated with 'The Scope of Menstruation Leave Policy in India' is contained in this paper.   Click Here for Full Paper

16. Utility Model and Patent Law in India [International Publication - Indexed in SCOPUS / TR DIZIN]

Scopus Source ID

Cite As: Raj, P. (2021). Utility Model And Patent Law In India: A Critical Analysis. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry (TOJQI), 12(6), 8267–8277. Retrieved from


Abstract: Due to the rise of liberalization and globalization in the 1990s, the notion of intellectual property underwent a transformation. The Indian economy has substantially opened up and flourished in recent years. As a result, India’s importance in the global economy has grown dramatically, attracting significant international investment. In India, obtaining a patent takes a lot of time than usual. On the other side, utility models are granted easily and without any cumbersome procedure as such. The purpose of this paper is to critically analyze the patent law in India by comparing the utility models of other parts of the world. In this research paper, the researcher has put emphasis on the need and implementation of utility models in India for the benefit of a particular section of researchers and innovators. Click Here for Full Paper

15. Entity of Privacy in the Era of Technology [International Publication - Indexed in WEB OF SCIENCE (WOS) / SCI]

Web of Science ID:

Cite As: Raj, P., & Noorani, M. S. (2021). Entity of Privacy in the Era of Technology. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 27(1), 3829–3827. Retrieved from

Abstract: The shifting sense of privacy from one social background to the next, notably in the eyes of the law, has been a persistent challenge. Technology when seen from the lens of privacy in educational institutions poses a significant threat to the safety and security of all, the most vulnerable and exposed being- young girls, female teachers with the threat of stalking and voyeurism. Furthermore, it is a flagrant breach of students' and teachers' right to privacy and freedom of speech and expression. Notably, there are no regulations or legislation in place to control the installation of surveillance and data collection devices like CCTV or other monitoring/ data collection equipment in Educational Institutes for the purposes of safety, security and regulation. The authors would also examine the above in terms of the right to privacy, necessity, and legality. The authors will attempt to showcase reality on the ground along with legal landmarks to satisfy the object and rationale behind the research. Click here for Full Paper

14. Sexual Autonomy in Prison Administration in Special Reference to Prison Inmates in Post-Modern Era [International Publication - Indexed in THOMSON REUTERS / MENDELEY]

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Cite AsRaj, P. (2021). Sexual Autonomy in Prison Administration in Special Reference to Prison Inmates in Post-Modern Era. International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts, 9(3), 2320–2882. Retrieved from

Abstract: This article investigates prisoners' sexual autonomy by justifying isolation, sexual fulfillment, and quality of life among inmates in heterosexual romantic relationships with fellow inmates, inmates with outside partners, and inmates without a partner. Sexuality and sexual partnerships should be approached positively and respectfully, according to the Consultation, in order to achieve sexual wellbeing. The author explores the prisoners' sexual autonomy and their right to it. Furthermore, every person's sexual rights must be secured by laws and policies that represent a positive and respectful attitude toward sexuality and sexual relationships among inmates. In this paper, the author will take a post-modernist approach to the sexual well-being of prisoners. Click Here for Full Paper

13. Role of Indian Judiciary in Shaping Trademark Laws in Special Reference to Tele ADs [International Publication - Indexed in SCOPUS]

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Cite AsRaj, P., & Noorani, M. S. (2020). Role of Indian Judiciary in Shaping Trademark Laws in Special Reference to Tele ADs. International Journal of Management, 11(11), 2838–2851. Retrieved from

Abstract: With liberalization and globalization extending their tentacles all over the world, it has had an effect on the world order in a variety of ways, including the economy; it has resulted in economic globalization, which represents a significant transformational shift. Because of the rapid rise in the manufacture of products and services, the methods of production and manufacturing are evolving. The advertiser's primary goal is to increase the selling of his product or service and to educate the customer about its efficiency, but the rival with whom the goods are compared is concerned with the manner, in which the products are compared, as well as the prestige and goodwill of both parties. When a company uses promotional strategies to implement a marketing and promotion plan, there is a chance that an Intellectual Property dispute will arise. The primary goal of trademark law is to identify products and differentiate one person's goods and services from those of another. The trademark establishes a connection between the products and their source of origin. The law regulating false advertising and unfair competition regulates a company's potential liability in the event of false advertising. The author of this research paper will investigate under what conditions advertising based on a competitor's name, symbol, or emblem is deemed actionable, as defined by the laws of various countries. In light of trademark laws in India, the author has analyzed the judicial precedents set by the Indian judiciary in shaping advertising. Click Here

12. Constitutional Amendment - A Critical Analysis [International Publication - Indexed in GOOGLE SCHOLAR]

Cite AsRaj, P., & Noorani, M. S. (2020). Constitutional Amendment: A Critical Analysis. International Journal of Legal Science & Innovation, 2(3), 83–115. Retrieved from

Abstract: Constitution is an ever changing document. It should grow along as the nation transforms and should suit the ever growing needs and conditions of a on the rise and changing society. It happens under the brunt of new and dominant social and economic pressures, the government needs to bring some necessary changes. If the Constitution acts as a hindrance for accepting such desirable and necessary changes it will not under immense pressure sustain itself. A Constitution, as such, cannot have any claim to permanence, nor should it, because it has been adopted and has been working ever since, claim absolute sanctity. The authors will critically analyze the basic structure doctrine and like other safeguards in other countries to protect the essence of the Constitution. The Authors in this article will understand the problems from various perspectives keeping in mind the diverse nature of stake holders affected from an amendment. The Authors will try to suggest and get on to cogent solution to encounter the problem affiliated with the amendment and its tedious process. Click Here for Full Paper

11. Legal Implications of Comparative Advertisement [International Publication - Indexed in SCOPUS]

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Cite AsRaj, P., & Noorani, M. S. (2020). Legal Implications of Comparative Advertisement in India. International Journal of Management, 11(12), 3624–3634. Retrieved from

Abstract: The issue of the legality of comparative advertising has given rise to numerous debates. The reason lies in the fact that basically a comparative advertisement is likely to give more information than a usual advertisement and there may be likely abuse or it may be beneficial to the consumers. In addition to this, the consumers may accord more emphasis to the comparative advertisements than the non-comparative ones. The advertisers basically advertise with an object to increase his sale of product or services and to inform the consumer about the quality, but the competitor with whom the products are compared is concerned with the way the products are being compared and moreover the reputation and goodwill are also at stake. In this research paper, the Author had also focused upon the legal regime relating to comparative advertising in India and also the legal approaches made in European Union, United Kingdom, and United States. To probe into the statutory framework of comparative advertising in India the Author has taken International Law and Role of Judiciary to crave out the present position in India. Click Here for Full Paper

10. Analysis of Legal Measures to Control & Prevent Cyber Crimes [International Publication - Indexed in PUBLON-WEB OF SCIENCE / ROAD / CROSSREF]

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Cite As: Raj, P. (2021). Analysis of legal measures to control and prevent cybercrimes. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 8(4), 16–19.

Abstract: The internet, like life, is a blend of good and bad. Cyberspace, with all of its benefits, still has a dark side. Trespassing into a computer system to cause sabotage of the systems and records, as well as theft of the stored data, are common criminal activities associated with this crime. These crimes know no bounds and have an effect on countries all over the world. These crimes are described as unlawful, unauthorized human behavior involving the automatic processing and transmission of data through computer systems and networks. It is the most difficult task for the police, judges, and legislators. Various legal measures exist in our legal system to regulate and deter cybercrime. The author of this article will discuss every element of the legislative mechanisms in place to regulate and deter cybercrime.       Click Here 

09. Existence of Separation of Power and Rule of Law in Democracy and Republican form of Government in the Era of Transformative Constitutionalism [International Publication - Indexed in SCOPUS]

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Cite As: Raj, P., & Noorani, M. S. (2021). Existence of Separation of Power and Rule of Law in Democracy and Republican form of Government in the Era of Transformative Constitutionalism. Elementary Education Online (EEO) of University of Ankara, 20(5), 3907–3914.

Abstract: The concept of constitutionalism calls for the limitation of state powers and powers established by the Constitution. Constitutionalism is the idea that governments can legally limit their powers and also limit their powers and their powers or justifications are subject to these restrictions. In our discussion of the concept of constitutionalism, we compare Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, that is, the concept of constitutional unrestricted sovereignty with the concept of limited sovereignty with considerable limitations. In this article the author will discuss the various aspects of constitutionalism while making the Constitution of India, 1950. The author will also throw light upon the Doctrine of Separation of powers and rule of law in the context of constitutionalism. The author in this article will try to find out the roadways to transformative constitutionalism inter-relating the above three concepts.  Click Here for Full Paper

08. Matrimonial Rights of Transgender: Need of Legal Framework [National Publication - Indexed in UGC-CARE]

Cite As: Raj, P. (2021). Matrimonial Rights of Transgender: Need of Legal Framework. Bihar Journal of Public Administration, 18(2), 220–229.

Abstract: Transgender marriage occurs when a change of gender identity is judicially recognized in the context of marriage. The right to marry a person of one’s choice is integral to Article 21 of the Constitution. The Constitution guarantees the right to life. This right cannot be taken away except through a law that is substantively and procedurally fair, just, and reasonable. Intrinsic to the liberty which the Constitution guarantees as a fundamental right is the ability of each individual to make decisions on matters central to the pursuit of happiness. Matters of belief and faith, including whether to believe are at the core of constitutional liberty. Society has no role to play in determining our choice of partners. In this paper, the author analyses the various international judgments and laws regarding the matrimonial rights of the transgender. In the Research paper, the Author will suggest amendments to the Matrimonial Laws operative in India. Click Here for Full Paper

07. Victimology under the Criminal Justice System: Expanding the Scope of Criminology [International Conference]

Cite As: Raj, P. (2021). Victimology under the Criminal Justice System: Expanding the Scope of Criminology. International Conference on Human Rights and Access to Justice, 290–309. Hyderabad: Institute of Chartered Financial Analyst of India University.

Abstract: Rights of the victim are an essential part of the Criminal Justice Administration. The present research paper analyse the role of the victim during criminal proceedings. This research paper will be analysing the interaction between victims with the constituent elements of the criminal justice system and the role played by him at each stage of the criminal process. The author will explain the Rights of Victims and their role under various laws and also analysing the concept and development of Victimology and Criminology. This paper will be suggesting the remedial measures for the enhancement of the role of Victims under criminal procedure. This paper will analyse the role of the victim during criminal proceedings in criminal law-making special emphasis upon the rights of victims of sexual offenses. The paper will examine the legislation for the protection of the Rights of Victim and the role of the Judiciary in Protecting the Rights of victims. Click Here for Full Paper

06. Gerrymandering of Reservations in India [International Publication - Indexed in SJIF / ROAD]

Cite As: Raj, P. (2020). Gerrymandering of Reservations in India. International Journal of Law Management & Humanities, 3(3), 250–269. Retrieved from

Abstract: The goal of protective discrimination was to integrate the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes with the rest of the population than the system of quotas in jobs, scholarships, and reserved constituencies have only strengthened their separate identity and caused heart burning to the members of general category people who are similarly deprived and for whom there is no reservation. In adopting, retaining and even extending the range of the policy of protective discrimination, the claims of the individuals as against those of the group, of the reward given to merit as against those of need have to be balanced. Again it would be erroneous to assume that by making concessions to communities and castes, the needs of every individual is satisfied. Classification of castes and communities embodied in itself the concept of discrimination. So in destroying old inequalities we should hot create new ones. Discrimination is dangerous instrument, no matter how pure the intentions are of those who use it and how careful we have to be in using it even for a desirable end. There is a gerrymandering in Indian Law regarding reservations and this article will try to examine every aspect of it. Click Here for Full Paper

05. Witness Protection Laws in India [International Publication - Indexed in SJIF / ROAD]

Cite As: Raj, P. (2020). Witness Protection Laws in India: An Analysis. Pen Acclaims, 10, 1–14. Retrieved from

Abstract: The Indian Judicial system has been so hard to deal with the problem of witness protection but since there is an absence of such legislation witnesses is not getting that protection as and when needed. Present circumstances are such that it is not being able to provide protection to them. Presently, the vulnerability of the witnesses is very prominent. Provisions in the existing laws are inadequate to meet the need of time. Now-a-days reporting of unceremonious acquittals in sensational criminal cases is on the rise. Most of them are on account of defection of loyalty of witnesses. As there is every chance of manipulating the witnesses and putting them under coercion a strict law is required to be made for the protection of those witnesses. This article will analyse the steps taken by legislature and judiciary for the witness protection and there implementation in society as per law. Click Here for Full Paper

04. Challenges in Police Investigations in India [National Publication - Indexed in GOOGLE SCHOLAR/ SJIF / ROAD]

Cite As: Raj, P., & Yadav, S. (2020). Challenges in Police Investigations in India. Pen Acclaims, 9, 1–13. Retrieved from

Abstract: Existing police system suffers from myriad deficiencies. From problems relating to police organisation, infrastructure and environment to obsolete weaponry and intelligence gathering techniques to shortage of manpower to corruption, police force in the country is not in a good shape. The superintendence and control of the police is a debatable issue. As per the police laws, both the Central and State police forces come under the superintendence and control of political executives. This has resulted in the lack of democratic functioning and appropriate direction. Police priorities are frequently altered based on the will of political executives. Click Here for Full Paper

03. Sexual Rights of Prisoners' [National Publication - Indexed in HEIN ONLINE / MANUPATRA / SJIF / ROAD / DRJI]

Cite As: Raj, P. (2020). Sexual Rights of Prisoners’. Supremo Amicus, 17, 356–374. Retrieved from

Abstract: This article examines the sexual rights of the prisoners by justifying loneliness, sexual satisfaction, and quality of life among prison inmates having heterosexual romantic relationships with fellow prisoners, inmates with a partner outside the prison, and inmates without a partner. After controlling for age, nationality, total time in prison, actual sentence time served, and estimated time to parole, the results showed a lower level of romantic loneliness, and a higher level of sexual satisfaction, and global, psychological, and environmental quality of life. The right of the prisoners raises a question as to what extent it can incorporate conjugal rights to the prisoners in the jail premises. This article is intended to discuss whether conjugal rights are a privilege or a right. In India, the conjugal visit is not permitted. A conjugal visit is a private meeting between sexual partners with an inmate in jail. The original purpose for a marital visit is to urge detainees to keep up family ties. The Consultation suggested that to achieve sexual health, sexuality and sexual relationships should be approached positively and respectfully. Apart from conjugal rights the author also examines the sexual autonomy of the prisoners and their right to it. Further, the sexual rights of every person must be protected by the laws and policies which must reflect a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships of prisoners. Click Here for Full Paper

02. Copyright Law and Issues of Digitization Process: Impact on Individual Rights [National Conference Paper]

Cite As: Raj, P. (2021). Copyright Law and Issues in Digitization Process: Impact on Individual Rights. National E-Conference on IPR: Breaking Conventionalities and Future Prospects. ICFAI University, Hyderabad.

Abstract: Technology development has created new challenges for current copyright law. Since the law was developed primarily in print media mode, it gradually developed creative work, protective work that included painting, drawing, and sculpture, and later expanded to Beth b to photography and film. The development of digital data in society had to advance the basic concepts of ancient law and copyright. Technological copiers or recording devices have made digital data easier to access as Internet use increases, which allows the author to manipulate the free flow of information in society as soon as this digital publication is published on the Internet, the author loses all control. The author analyzed various aspects of digitization and copyright issues of concern today. Click Here for Full Paper

01. Digital Libraries: A New Era of Promoting Education  [National Publication - Book Chapter]

Cite As: Arjun, & Raj, P. (2020). Digital Libraries: A New Era of Promoting Education. In ICT Trends & Applications in Libraries. Delhi, India: Book Age Publication.

Abstract: Digital Libraries are omnipresent. Digital libraries of the future will give access to a large variety of multimedia and multi type documents created by integrating content from many different heterogeneous sources that range from repositories of text, images. and audio-video, scientific data archives, and databases. The realisation of these new digital libraries requires both the provision of a new technology and a change in the role played by the libraries in the information access production cycle. A single isolated Digital Library is valueless. It must be connected to the world" to users as well as to content and services provided by other Digital Library systems. Digital libraries will be critical to future humanities scholarship. Not only will they provide access to a host of source materials that humanists need in order to do their work, but these libraries will also enable new forms of research that were difficult or impossible to undertake before. Policy ensuring mechanisms will guarantee that the information produced is visible only to those who have the appropriate rights to access it. Interactive features such as adding annotations to existing material must also be available. The realisation of these new digital libraries requires both the provision of a new technology and a change in the role played by the libraries in the information access production cycle. This chapter gives a history of digital libraries. It pays particular attention to how they have thus far failed to incorporate several key elements of conventional libraries, and discusses current and future digital library developments that are likely to provide these missing elements. This paper discusses how it contributes to the realisation of a novel digital libraries' scenario. Click Here for Full Paper

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